To cumulate two jobs?

It may happen that a person, an employee of a company, wishes:

  • start your own business
  • test a business idea;
  • help a friend who starts his own business.

Therefore, is it possible for this person to carry out these two professional activities in parallel?

Work Sick (CC smemon)

Work Sick (CC smemon)

Chapter 1. The principle

In reality, there is no general principle of the type "it is forbidden to cumulate two jobs” .

The principle is therefore the freedom !

Nevertheless, in order to protect the employee and his employer, the legislator has set some limits to this freedom.

Chapter 2. The limits to this principle

Section 2.1. Loyalty

An employee has a duty of loyalty to his employer (L1222-1 Labor Code and 1135 Civil Code).

Therefore, the launch of a concurrent activity in parallel is prohibited (C. Cass. soc. January 28, 2014, No. 13-10518), since the mere registration of a company having a competing object does not constitute a fault in itself (C. Cass. soc. June 19, 2013, No. 12-19097)

In addition, the cumulative activity must not interfere with the initial employment (C. Cass. soc. December 6, 1979, No. 78-41248 ex. during his working time, it is advisable to get involved 100% for his employer: this is obvious, but it is better by saying it).

Section 2.2. Contractual exclusivity

It is also worth looking at his employment contract.

Indeed, this one can arrange the conditions of a plurality of employment, or even prohibit it simply. To be valid, the clause must (C. Cass.soc., September 15, 2010, No. 08-44640):

  • be essential the protection of the legitimate interests of the enterprise;
  • be justified by the task at hand;
  • be proportionate the desired goal.

Thus a clause which has the effect of preventing the employee from having a professional activity outside his working time, including in sectors of activity unrelated to that of the employer, was ineligible for it (C. Cass.soc., September 15, 2010, No. 08-44640).

In addition, a clause providing for or prohibiting the accumulation of employment is prohibited in a part-time contract (C. Cass. soc. July 11, 2000, No. 98-43240in this case the judges decided that the exclusive dealing contract should be interpreted as a full-time contract).

Section 2.3. Working time and rest

2.3.1. Scope

This paragraph only concerns the accumulation of salaried jobs. Indeed, no legislation comes to settleuse"Your free time for other activities (such as running a business or others).

In addition, the law explicitly provides that certain activities may be carried out without any constraint on the maximum duration of working time (L8261-3 Labor Code):

  • scientific, literary or artistic works and the contribution to works of general interest (in particular teaching, education or charitable purposes),
  • work done on his own account or free of charge in the form of voluntary mutual assistance,
  • small housework done at home for their personal needs,
  • emergency work whose immediate execution is necessary to prevent impending accidents or to organize rescue measures.

2.3.2. Maximum duration of working time

The employee can not exceed the maximum working time (L8261-1 Labor Code for the employee, L8261-2 Labor Code for the employer):

In case of non-compliance with these rules, the sanction is:

If the employee exceeds the maximum authorized period, the employer must invite the employee in writing to abandon one of these contracts (C. Cass. Company, 9 December 1998, No. 96-41911): failing to abandon one of the employment contracts, the employer may dismiss his employee.

2.3.3. Minimal rest

In addition, the employee must respect the minimum rest period:

In case of non-compliance with these rules, the penalty is 750€ for the employer (R3135-1 Labor Code together 131-13 Penal Code).

Section 2.4. Parental leave

If the employee takes a parental leave of education, it is not possible for him to exercise any professional activity (except maternal assistant, L1225-53 Labor Code).

Section 2.5. For civil servants

Civil servants (civil servants and non-incumbents) can not combine their position with a lucrative private activity (Article 25 of Law No 83-634 of 13 July 1983), except :

  • if they have been authorized;
  • if the cumulative activity is a public activity.

Chapter 3. Initial employer information

There is no legal requirement to notify his employer.

Nevertheless, if he comes to discover it, he can ask to protect himself (see the sanctions of the article R8262-2 Labor Code) a written certificate from his employee certifying that the maximum hours of work are not exceeded.

Refusal to give such an attestation to his employer constitutes a serious error which may lead to dismissal (C. Cass. Company, May 19, 2010, No. 09-40923).

2 Comments:

  1. Hello,

    j’avais deux contrats à temps partiel en cdi l’un de 22 heures et l’autre de 104 heures, mon employeur à 104 heures m’a passé à139 heures sans avenant au premier contrat. Puis il m’a surchargé de travail et de fait n’ayant pas d’avenant je n’ai su que faire, j’ai à 17 reprises dépassé le temps complet pour cet emploi. Ce qui fait que je travaillais parfois 180 ou 190 heures par mois. J’ai mis fin au contrat de 22 heures, mais de fait contractuellement je n’avais plus que des ressources pour 139 heures de travail par mois au lieu de 161 heures avec les deux contrats, ce qui me permettait de vivre. Je dépassais très souvent les heures contractuelles et parfois de beaucoup en période de bilan par exemple. Ma supérieure hiérarchique me donnait une partie de son travail à faire sans se soucier des heures passées et fini par quitter l’emploi de 22 heures. J’avais commencé depuis quelques mois à ressentir des troubles sensoriels récurrents, et une grande fatigue, j’avais demandé un temps complet au regard des dépassements horaires du cumul d’emplois pour abandonner mon deuxième emploi de 22 heures. Mon employeur n’a jamais donné suite à ma demande et à continuer à me charger de travail. J’ai tenu aussi longtemps que j’ai pu et surtout j’ai demandé une meilleure organisation du travail pour que les horaires puissent être prévisibles mais le résultat fut une mise au placard et trois longs mois de mépris, d’insultes… Je suis tombée gravement malade (arrêts de travail continus durant deux ans et mis en invalidité de deuxième catégorie) pour syndrome dépressif réactionnel souffrance au travail.

    J’ai depuis fait la démarche d’une reconnaissance en maladie professionnelle de ma pathologie. Puis je mettre en avant la parfaite indifférence de mon employeur des 104 heures initiales de la législation sur le cumul d’emplois à temps partiel. De n’avoir jamais fait d’avenant à l’augmentation de mon temps de travail chez lui, de n’avoir jamais vérifié si les horaires cumulés avec mon autre emploi pouvaient engendrer une surcharge horaire susceptible d’entraîner des problèmes de santé….
    This employer knew that I had a second job.

    I thank you in advance for your answer

    cordially
    fable

  2. corner of salarie.fr

    thank you for this very useful information! not always obvious this being said in practice not to exceed the maximum legal working time when you cumulate two jobs!

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